The goal of this guide is to increase the ability of Aboriginal peoples to understand the mineral development cycle and participate in exploration and mining-related activities. The information is organised into four sections that match the main phases of the mineral development cycle: mineral exploration, mine development and construction, mine operation, and mine closure and reclamation. The sections can be presented together or used separately on a stand-alone basis. A glossary of terms is included to provide definitions for words that are bolded in the text. Aboriginal-industry relationships and partnerships have evolved tremendously through the conclusion of agreements at various phases of the mineral development cycle, which have proven to be successful in securing benefits for some Aboriginal communities or groups and for mining companies. The types of agreements vary by community, jurisdiction, and stage of the project. At the exploration stage, exploration agreements, memoranda of understanding, or letters of intent may be signed as a way to create a protocol between a community and an exploration company and to define principles for working together. An important distinction between exploration and producing (mining) companies is the lack of a revenue stream for exploration companies. At the mining development stage, more formal agreements are negotiated, such as an Impact and Benefit Agreement (IBA), that contain provisions for employment and training, business opportunities through set-aside contracts and joint ventures, social and cultural considerations, funding arrangements, and other provisions.
Government of Canada, PDAC, Mining Association of Canada, and Canadian Aboriginal Minerals Association. (2013). Exploration and mining guide for Aboriginal communities. Government of Canada: Ottawa, Canada.