Tin mines in the Bangka Belitung Islands have been exploited for about a hundred years. Following the issuance of a 1999 Ministry of Trade and Industry decree that tin is not an export item to be monitored and regulated, the Banka regent issued a decree giving permission for the people to mine tin in 2001. Consequently, "unconventional mines" (tambang inkonvensional), the term used to describe local small-scale tin mines, have expanded significantly since 2000. The mining activities increase the wealth of the people, but they decrease environmental stability. Offshore mining has reduced water quality as total soluble solids have increased and pH decreased; changes in the seabed have caused changes in benthic flora, fauna and plankton diversity and an increased mortality index of coral reefs and their associated fish. The number of fish caught in the offshore mining site has decreased. Inland mining activity has reduced soil fertility and flora and fauna diversity. Inland mining has reduced the number of individuals, species and plant families. In some areas, illegal mining causes floods in the rainy season and damages roads and bridges. Socio-economic secondary data were collected from various sites on Bangka Island through a literature review. In addition to inadequate commitment and political will on the part of the local and national governments, a low level of law enforcement seems to be a dominant factor in the low environmental awareness. These findings may be used to accelerate the mine closure program started by the largest tin mining company. This paper illustrate some opportunities and alternatives.
Managing the socio-economic impact of tin mining on Bangka Island, Indonesia - preparation for closure
Nurtjahya, E. & Agustina, F. (2015). Managing the socio-economic impact of tin mining on Bangka Island, Indonesia - preparation for closure. In A.B. Fourie, M. Tibbett, L. Sawatsky, & D. van Zyl (Eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Mine Closure. InfoMine/Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Vancouver (pp. 817-826).