Mine closure occurs once the mineral resource at a working mine is exhausted or operationsare no longer profitable. Prior to the introduction of mine closure requirements, beginning in the 1970s, mines were often abandoned without being adequately decommissioned or reclaimed. The manner in which mining companies rehabilitate the land used for mining, both surface and underground, requires careful regulation. For the system to be effective, accountable and user-friendly, the obligations and processes should be clearly defined in the legislation. In addition, the rehabilitation process should be as transparent as possible, providing for meaningful consultation in order to ensure accountability to stakeholders and especially to communities whose livelihoods are dependent on the success of mine rehabilitation and closure.
Vivoda, V. & Fulcher, J. (2017). Remediation, Rehabilitation and Mine Closure (Series on International Best Practice, Working Paper No. 2, Mining Legislation Reform Initiative), AUA Center for Responsible Mining, American University of Armenia (Yerevan, Armenia).